The frequency of waves: definition and the ways of calculation

A common concept in physics, waves are described as disturbances that transmit energy through matters and space. Sometimes, they are associated with mass transport, sometimes, they are not. Waves are reported, in physics, at a fixed point, and consist of oscitations or vibrations of a physical field or medium. In physics, there are known two types of waves: mechanical and electromagnetic. While mechanical waves take place in solid, physical matters, electromagnetic waves do not require a physical medium to propagate. They are formed from oscillations of electrical and magnetic fields, periodic ones, generated by particles, and thus, they can also travel through the vacuum. In this category are included radio waves, microwaves, infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet radiation, X-rays and gamma rays. (more…)

What is gravitational lensing?

Everyone is already familiar with the real-life applications of gravity. Not only do we feel its effects every day, but also we are provided enough information from mass media. Gravity allows to keep our feet on the ground. Without gravity, we would simply float off into the atmosphere. Gravity is an essential force in the Universe, holding the Earth and all of the planets in place. Our galaxy is made up of hundreds of billions of stars and all of them hold together due to the force of attraction.

One of the most interesting things about gravity is that it operates like a lens, making distant objects appear nearer. Thanks to Albert Einstein’s insight on how gravity works, we now know that the universe isn’t static. On the contrary, it’s fully dynamic. Einstein predicted gravitational lensing, in which massive objects can bend light. Clearly, he was ahead of his time. (more…)

How quantum entanglement works

Quantum entanglement is a physical phenomenon in which two particles remain connected over long distances so that the actions performed on one particle also have an effect on the second particle. If it sounds mind-boggling, it’s because it is. Albert Einstein, who first discussed the idea of quantum entanglement in a joint paper with Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen, dubbed the phenomenon “spooky action at a distance” because it implies faster than light communication, which his theory of relativity ruled out.

The particles in the entangled pair form an inseparable whole and one cannot be fully described without the other. However, entanglement is broken when particles interact with the environment, such as when a measurement is made. The paradox of quantum entanglement lies in the fact that a measurement of either one of the entangled particles collapses the entire system before the result of one measurement can be transmitted to the other particle. (more…)